typology of parties and party systems:
- Elite party
- mass party, 1960s, by Duverger
- cadre party
- catch-all party, 1960s, by Kirchherimer; revisited by Wolinetz, 1991;
- electoral professional party, by Panebianco
- New politics party, by Poguntke
- Cartel Party, by Katz and Mair 1995; restatement in 2009;
- business firm party, by Hopkin and Paolucci
Mainly, there exists four models of party: elite party, mass party, catch-all party, cartel party.
Katz and Mair: Changing Models of Party Organization and Party Democracy: the emergence of the Cartel Party. Party politics. 1995;1;5.
Still, I have found parties in Asian countries, hardly fit in this typology. About this “exceptionalism“, Alan Ware writes,
Despite some developments noted earlier, the study of party organizations remains largely’regionalized‘. One of the adverse consequences over the last four decades of this ‘regionalization‘ of research on organizational change has been that it has tended to lead to regional differences in organizational responses by parties being exaggerated or misconceived.
The utility of returning to the kind of comparative framework Epstein, following Duverger, was developing four decades ago is that it enables us to look at how parties operating under different rules of the game respond to changes in their environments that are common to all of them. This is not to argue against the continuation of ‘regionalist‘ studies, for they will surely remain an important source of our knowledge of party organizations. Rather, it is to argue for supplementing such work by the development of analytic frameworks that recognize the significance of all factors that shape how all parties go about organizing their business in democracies. It is time to weaken the grip that ‘exceptionalism‘ and ‘regionalism’ have had on research into party structures.
*Alan Ware: Exceptionalism, Political Science and the Comparative Analysis of Political Parties. Government and Opposition. Vol. 46, no.4, pp.411-435,2011.
the comparative study of political parties has been primarily a West European venture in which the other parties which researchers knew most about those in the United States-were sufficiently different for them to be walled off into a separate literature.
(Here it comes to the unexplored Asia! )