research notes on party studies-*(5)_Asian regimes

政党研究については、今年最後の授業です。

之前已经说过,政党的产生,发展,乃至于理论的出现和发展都是欧洲中心的,也是以解决欧洲诸国面临的问题而产生更多的发展和突破的,那么亚洲呢?

似乎仅有的就是日本了?比如satori的政党体系的研究。那么除此之外呢?

这里简要介绍现有的研究。

研究背景context, 亚洲国家,一党制或者是一党优势政党/一党独大体制的“开发独裁”理论。

详细参考

James Gregor, Italian Fascism and Developmental Dictatorship, 1979. Princeton University Press.

日文版如下

末広昭「アジア開発独裁論」、中兼和津次 編: 「講座現代アジア 2近代化と構造変動」東京大学出版会, 1994年、211パージ

此外还有藤原帰一(ふじはら きいち)「政党党体制」 マレーシア、シンガポール、インドネシア

「政権党と在野党:東南アジアにおける政府党体制」 萩原宜之 編 「講座現代アジア ; 3 民主化と経済発展」 東京大学出版社、1994年、232ページ

此外,除去国别研究,而作为政党与民主化之间的关系进行系统研究的,有以下:

  1. Jason Brownlee, Authoritarianism in the Age of Democratization, 2007. Cambridge University Press.
  2. Edward Friedman and Joseph Wong, Eds., Political Transitions in Dominant Party Systems: Learning to Lose, 2008. Routledge

我对于Routledge出版的书一向评价不高,不是人家不好,是不合我口味。

Brownlee是用了foundational elite and social conflicts的概念来分析, 将埃及和马来西亚, 列为没有转向民主化,维持现有的政体的; 而伊朗和菲律宾则是顺利民主化的国家。(本书写于2007年)

分类的理由是, 前者属于initial elite conflict resolved—- 导致ruling party blinds elites together in political coalition—- 再导致institutionally-bound coalition blocks the opposition from power—再导致regime endurance

而后者属于, initial elite conflict continues— 导致rival elites supersede party and form tactical alliances—-再导致ruling alliance fragments and elites defect to the opposition. —–再导致opportunity for democratization.

与其说是理论,不如说是继续了elite politics 的理论框架,而政党则彻底沦为了工具而已。

所以他在结论写道, 所谓,政党,实质是把双刃剑。

To understand how parties bring political stability to authoritarian regime, we must theorize the relationship of the party to the leaders it holds together. Even when a single figure occupies the helm of a regime , autocrats do not rule completely alone:  They depend on coalitions of elite.

page 12

Party institutions provide valuable tools for democratic consolidation. The cases of Egypt and Malaysia, however, suggest that parties can also facilitate the consolidation of nondemocratic regimes. in light of these accounts, parties appear to be double-edged instruments for inculcating durable democracy: they restrain factionalism, curbing the chaos that accompanies party-less politics, but they also maintain autocratic coalitions, diffusing the pressures that would prompt new coalitions and rotation of power.

page 218-219

我不是中东政治的专业,不太了解,但是我记得在既有的研究中,菲律宾的政党体系源于之前的殖民时期,相对完备且完善(至于他们的家族政治,世袭政治,那是另外的)

所以这里对于这样的案例选择依据??我还没读原文,不甚了解。

但是,正如yoshino老师所说,这是个值得称赞的尝试。

—– 下一本, 下周/2014 year. 良いお年を!

 

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