About presidential contest in Liberal Democratic Party of Japan in 1979 after Miki Takeo’s reform proposal.
The 1970s were a period of intermittent “civil war” within the LDP, with hostilities peaking at the end of the decade.
In 1979, for the first and last time in its history to date, the LDP failed to coordinate on a candidate for the premiership, with the mainstream (Ohira and Tanaka) fielding one candidate and the non-mainstream (Fukuda, Nakasone, and Miki) another.
The mainstream candidate (Ohira) eventually won, but a few months later the non-mainstream factions absented themselves during a vote of no confidence, thus bringing down the government.
Prime Minister Ohira decided to dissolve the Diet, rather than step down in favor of an intra-party opponent, so a general election ensured in Jun 1980.
*Gay Cox and Frances Rosenbluth: The Electoral Fortunes of Legislative Factions in Japan. APSR, Vol.87, No.3. 1993 Sept. Page 583.
值得一梳的是， 1979年LDP总裁选是第一次采用了primary election， 由地方普通党员也可以参与到总裁选的过程中。这被看作是党内民主化的初次尝试*（intraparty democracy)
而Fukuda在第一轮的地方投票就输给了Ohira， 且很快宣布退出总裁选，Ohira笑到了最后。 不过当初在比较1979年的总裁选和2001年的总裁选的时候， 我完全忽略了Ohira在一年不到的时间就解散议会的事实，这里如何改进呢？是否可以看作是the nature of the victory/ advantage 还需要分析呢？ （存疑）