party politics in post-communist countries (1)

继续周一的政党研究。日文版权归yoshino, follett 只负责整理。。。(属于低级脑力活动么?)

有关政党与民主化的关系,既往的研究,主要有2种研究路径,

其一是民主化,到底对政党的发展,产生了怎样的影响/效果?(主要是在新兴民主国家)

其二 是政党对于民主化产生了怎样的影响/效果?(主要是民主化之前就已经存在一定发展程度的政党和政党体系,显然不是asian 的范畴)

主要介绍2本著作。

1,Post- communist party systems: competition, presentation,  and inter-party cooperation. 1999

Herbert kitschelt, Mansfeldova Zdenka, Markowski Radoslaw, and Gabor Toka,

这是一本关于前东欧国家民主转型的教科书般的必读书目。研究对象是, Bulgaria, Czechia, Hungary, Poland 四个国家。

通过国别比较来说明,各国在民主化的路径和民主程序的特征,以及各自的类似点和不同点。

结论/总结それぞれの国には歴史的遺産があり、新しい政治システムと経済体制を構築するという経路依存過程において、それに応じてアクターが戦略的に選択を行う。(page19)

最重要的部分是,他将既有的东欧前苏联各国,分为了以下3类别,

Bureaucraticauthoritarian communism, national-accommodative communism,  patrimonial communism.

其中bulgaria属于patrimonial communism (历史传统么??) Czechia属于第一类官僚主导威权主义;Hungary属于national-accomodativce ; 而Poland则处于2者之间。(本书出版于1999年,所以我们可以说, 教授们的那句,page 383  If at least one of the following three propositions proves empirically robust in future research, our study will ultimately have been successful. 好牛气的说法,不过确实也solide detabed 了)

结论部分page 383-385

First,  democratic experience in post-communist democracies varies with regime legacies and institutions.  …

Second,  citizens and politicians learn to act on well-understood self-interests in new democracies quite rapidly. …

Third,  democratic processes leave an imprint on political-economic outcomes. Our study has made this claim in an implicit fashion by showing how the potential for economic liberalization,  articulated by liberal democrats within the system of party competition,  varies across countries with diverging regime legacies.

——此研究,尽管是历史研究,尽管是case studies, 尽管写的如教科书,但是参考意义依旧!

而且这里强调history legacy, 强调institutional legacy, path dependence, 在眼下看来还是很有意义的。参考之前的有关poland-hungray 的 长达5年的media-democracy 的比较研究

https://nearwy.wordpress.com/2013/11/16/study-of-democracies-in-east-central-europe_democratic-fatigue_/

另一本著作, Rebuilding Leviathan: Party Competition and State Exploitation in Post-Communist Democracies

读得人很兴奋,下周有时间再写。

では、来週!

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