Reflections on Political Parties and Political Development, Four Decades Later
Yale University, Center for Comparative Research, email@example.com
Party Politics March 2007 vol. 13 no. 2 141-154
Joseph LaPalombara 和Myron Weiner合著了 Political and Political Development
The decline of the political parties as perhaps the chief instrument for integrating previously excluded groups into political participatory modes was already apparent then.
Similarly, it was predictable that universal suffrage and elections would not necessarily lead to democracy.
Less apparent back then was that a proliferation of political parties would both reflect and also radically change the cleavage structure of society and, consequently, attenuate the tendency of parties and party systems to ‘freeze’ into predictable and enduring patterns.
Above all, it was not imagined that revolutionary technological changes of the past several decades would so profoundly affect the nature of elections, and the role of political parties in them, as to raise disturbing questions regarding the future of representative democratic politics.
- Party 政党作为政治参与的重要形式，依旧发挥着重要作用。
- 但是party is in decline,
The general conclusion, supported by papers prepared for this conference, is that the political party is everywhere in decline. Party identification is weakened. Party legitimacy is problematical.
3. 对于非民主国家，emerging democracies,来说，理论上的挑战依旧，甚至更加强大。40年完全想不到苏联的变化和如今GDP全球排第二的国家
① The price paid for this (information), however, is that face-to-face exchanges among citizens and voters, exchanges that were once considered vital to healthy democratic societies, now almost never occur. 技术带来信息流动的速度和成本的影响
② These men and women (political party, leaders, potential political candidates) are now able to reach great numbers of their actual and potential electoral supporters directly, through the mass media and the internet, and without the intervention of traditional party cadres or local party organizations. Technology, in effect, has served to make personalismo, once considered the bane of Latin American political systems, the major characteristic of contemporary electoral politics essentially everywhere.
③ The third factor that privileges the electoral moment is the rise of the electoral specialists, the experts who “package” and “market” political candidates.
Without them, elections would be chaos and anarchy would follow. 它或许不是最好的，起码不是最坏的（个人理解）
Much of what is published about parties continues to be based on datasets, like those of the CSES, which derive from surveys of mass publics. Rich though these materials and research based on them may be, they leave us with scant information regarding the internal organizational nature and dynamics of political parties. （page 150）
Katz and Mair 1994,
所以近年大家都转去做IPD？ 不过问题就在于，深入理解政党的Internal organizational nature and dynamics of political parties. 往往就陷入国别研究，地区研究了，而且会在追溯其历史背景和文化差异的路上越走越远，顶多走出特殊性，那么代表性呢？是否别的类似结构的政党就一定会这样应对systematic 的变化和适应呢？ 很难总结。