*Shaun Bowler and Todd Donovan
Oxford University Press. 2013
本书提出了一个极好极好的问题，what are the prospects for electoral reforms to have substantial effects on voter behavior and attitudes?
在考察了campaign fiance(chapter 5), term limits, direct legislation, 之后，本书得出的结论是，Comapred to the expansion of the franchise to women, for example, such reforms as term limits or campaign finance are quite limited. Even so, the rules changes and reforms We have examined were promoted with great expectations.
BUT they all seem to have had effects on popular engagement with politics that fell short, and often far short, of those expectations.
可惜没有为本书提出的优秀的问题，给出一个稍微令人惊喜的答案。而且花了很多笔墨为null results 的重要性进行阐述。
其实日本近20年的政治变动，为limits of electoral institutions 提出了极好的case,可是愁得就是，就算follow本书的研究路径和方法，对于voters，对于election results 的观察，得出的结论或许也会不尽如人意，比如D.Smith的论文。
还是要回到party, party 来？这里避开了party , 直接用的是self-interested elites.
另外，本书开头对于如何定义和鉴别，changer, reformer， 非常有意思的破题。
还有一点也甚有深意。In fact, in some instances, it is not just that the effects we detect are small but they are not there at all. page 131.